The abacus was a great invention in ancient China and has been called by some Western writers \"the earliest calculating machine in the world\". The Abacus, is a sort of rectangular board with many bead
The abacus was a great invention in ancient China and has been called by some Western writers "the earliest calculating machine in the world". The Abacus, is a sort of rectangular board with many beads -- somewhat similar to what children use at primary school to learn counting. The abacus has a long history behind it. It was already mentioned in a book of the Eastern Han Dynasty, namely Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures written by Xu Yue about the year 190 A.D. Its popularization occurred at the latest during the Song Dynasty (960-1127), when Zhang Zeduan painted his Riverside Scenes at Qingming Festival. In this famous long scroll, an abacus is clearly seen lying beside an account book and doctor`s prescriptions on the counter of an apothecary`s. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the abacus was introduced into Japan. Abacuses are handy to carry around and quick to give the answers, provided one knows how to move the beads. They have been in use, therefore, down to this day. They are made in different sizes, and the largest known abacus, measuring 26 centimetres high by 306 centimetres long with 117 rods (for as many digits), is over a hundred years old and is kept at Darentang, a well-known traditional pharmacy in Tianjin. The beads on an abacus may be round or rhombus in shape. Traditionally, there are two beads above the horizontal bar and five below. Simplified modern versions have one bead above and four or five below. The methods of calculation remain unchanged. At a time when the world has entered the age of electronics, the abacus still enjoys undiminished vitality in China. Tests have shown that, for operations of addition and subtraction, the abacus is still faster than the electronic calculator. China developed in 1980 an "electronic abacus" which combines the speed of traditional addition and subtraction methods with those of the modern calculator at multiplication and division. It is a happy example of the integration between the East and West, the native and the modern. There is no doubt that it is one of the most prominent devices of business equipment in Chinese business offices today. There is not a home or office in Taiwan where an Abacus is not found. Its use is compulsory in all primary and business schools. Of late, many people from various countries are becoming interested in the use of the Abacus in an increased number. Wherever a Chinese goes, be it New York, London, Bombay, Sidney or Buenos Aires, the Abacus goes with him. Chinese government officials, bankers, financiers, office clerks, junk dealers, and house wives depend largely upon it for their counting in the same manner, as a child depends on his mother. A Chinese is so dependent on the Abacus that he finds it awkward to make even simple calculations without one. This Chinese dependence on the Abacus is understandable in the light of what this simple gadget can accomplish in the efficient calculations from the simplest to the most complex mathematical problems of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. More briefly explained, the Abacus is an instrument to augment mental arithmetic. The mechanics of its use is simple, and its accuracy is assured by repetition and practice alone. Many speed and accuracy contests have been staged between the Abacus and Calculating Machines. The small, insignificant and inexpensive Abacus has usually been the victor. Advantages of learning Abacus and Mental Arithmetic The learning of Mental Arithmetic using abacus can improve children`s effectiveness in mathematical calculations. The programme inculcates in the children the ability to use quick mental visualization to solve mathematical feats such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It increases their concentration and memory power and also sharpens their observation and analyzing skills. With these `advantages`, children will develop strong interest in Mathematics. Going through the programme will also help children to gain more self-confidence too. As a result, children will be able to speed up their learning, reading and conceptualising skills. Although children formed the majority in the learning of abacus, adults going through the programme have also benefited tremendously from the learning. Features of ELMAS Abacus Program The course "elmas" - Education & Learning of Mental Arithmetic System is specially designed for child learners and taught by Abacus Mental Mathematics Academy at many centres in Delhi and NCR. This course is professionally structured so that one can progress systematically. " The first and only Abacus program structure by professional syllabi administrators in India. " The program is based on famous Chinese techniques popularized by various Malaysian companies in the world. " It teaches use of abacus tool to calculate all the arithmetic functions, faster than a calculator with 100% accuracy. " It develops speed and accuracy to make our children globally competitive. " It is one of the best tools for developing learning skills such as concentration, listening, visualization, memory, imagination, creativity, and whole brain activation. " To keep the class interesting, there are skill exercises in math games, animal series games, speedwriting, visualization, etc. " Brain gym - an exercise program for healthy brain functioning. " The program is offered as 10 levels of 12 classes each. Normally a level is for a period of 3 months duration, and each class is for 2 hours duration once in a week. Abacus Franchise Starting a business in education is nothing but contributing your bit to build our nation. Where there is education there is health & wealth. Abacus education venture, under franchising terms, is financially and professionally rewarding. ELMAS Abacus Program is one of the best abacus & mental arithmetic learning programs you could ever find. And with AMMA on your side, your potential for growth and income is unlimited. Abacus franchise does not require commercial space and is ideal for women with passion for teaching who wish to stay home and develop an education business. " Classes for the age group of 6 years to 14 years " Professional Syllabi for Abacus Learning " Small and affordable investment " Remarkable return-on-investment within a short period " Flexible time and low time input " Break-even from very first month " Quality Teacher Training " Excellent Marketing Support " ISO 9001:2000 certified with UKAS accreditation " Member, Franchising Association of India SUMMARY The use of abacus is gaining much popularity as a new skill in many parts of the world such as Western Europe, Africa and Asia. Arithmetic experts continuously strive to research on the aspects of using Mental Arithmetic to speed up learning. The abacus is no longer seen as an archaic means of calculation but as a modern mean of creative learning. It may seem like a simple tool, however, as one steps into the world of abacus, one will be surprised to learn the many mathematical wonders it can perform. It could even put a calculator to shame.